To know the location of nodes plays an important role in many current and envisioned wireless sensor network applications. In this framework, we consider the problem of estimating the locations of all the nodes of a network, based on noisy distance measurements for those pairs of nodes in range of each other, and on a small fraction of anchor nodes whose actual positions are known a priori. The methods proposed so far in the literature for tackling this non-convex problem do not generally provide accurate estimates. The difficulty of the localization task is exacerbated by the fact that the network is not generally uniquely localizable when its connectivity is not sufficiently high. In order to alleviate this drawback, we propose a two-objective evolutionary algorithm which takes concurrently into account during the evolutionary process both the localization accuracy and certain topological constraints induced by connectivity considerations. The proposed method is tested with different network configurations and sensor setups, and compared in terms of normalized localization error with another metaheuristic approach, namely SAL, based on simulated annealing. The results show that, in all the experiments, our approach achieves considerable accuracies and significantly outperforms SAL, thus manifesting its effectiveness and stability.

%B Applied Soft Computing %V 12 %P 1891-1901 %8 07/2012 %G eng %N 7 %R 10.1016/j.asoc.2011.03.012